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Physics of Diagnostic Imaging II

From Radiological Sciences


[edit] Course Title: Advanced Diagnostic Imaging

[edit] Course No.:

RADI 6015

[edit] Instructor:

Jack Lancaster, Ph.D.

[edit] Text:

The Physics of Medical X-ray Imaging, 2nd Edition; Bruce H. Hasegawa

[edit] Credits:


[edit] Semester Offered:


[edit] Recommended References:

The Evaluation of Medical Images, Medical Physics Handbook 10, Evans A. Li, Adam Hilger Ltd., Bristol, 1981

Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnostics, Krestel Erich, Ed, Siemens, Berlin , 1990

Radiological Imaging- The Theory of Image Formation, Detection, and Processing, Vol 1&2, Barrett, Swindell W, Academic Press, New York, 1981

[edit] Evaluation Scheme:

Homework 30% ; Mid-Term Examination 30% ; Final Examination 30% ; Project 10%

[edit] Course Outline:

Theory and applications of various forms of electronic imaging systems including ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Advanced diagnostic imaging principles involving mathematical image analysis, digital image processing, digital image display, and concepts of electronic imaging.

[edit] List of Topics by week

    1. Chapter 1- Introduction to the basic concepts of Noise, Resolution, and Contrast as applied to medical images. Development of relationships of these concepts to Signal-to-noise ratio, Modulation Transfer function, and Wiener spectra. Introduction to the systems concepts using the Rose model.
    2. Chapter 2- Introduction to Electronic Imaging. Review of image intensifier/video system, scintillation detectors, gas ionization detectors, film digitizers and photostimulable phosphor plate systems.
    3. Chapter 3 - Digital Imaging in Diagnostic Radiology. Overview of a digital image processing system for x-ray fluoroscopy including image capture, storage, and processing. The digital image and sampling requirements derived from Shannon’s sampling theorem.
    4. Chapter 4- Physical Determination of Contrast. Components of image contrast attributable to radiographic (subject) contrast, detector contrast, display contrast, and physical perturbations. Review of the physical composition of the major body tissues( adipose, muscle, water and bone) and corresponding attenuation characteristics. Introduction to contrast media and attenuation characteristics. Contrast of film-screen systems compared to electronic detectors. The effects of scattered radiation on contrast.
    5. Chapter 5- Linear Systems. A review of linear systems including such fundamental concepts and the Dirac delta function, convolution and correlation rations, and the Fourier transform. Development of the mathematical model of x-ray imaging as a linear system. Expansion of the model to a Fourier space description.
    6. Chapter 5a- X-Ray CT. Mathematics of the computed tomography process will be presented. Radon’s theory of filtered backprojection will be developed using the Fourier transformation as the basis. Several different CT methods will be presented along with their relationship to the physical properties of imaging instrumentation. Non x-ray methods (SPECT and PET) will be briefly discussed.
    7. Chapter 6- Spatial Resolution. Mathematical analysis using the point, line and edge functions. Description of sources of geometrical unsharpness and their mathematical descriptions. Mathematical description of image digitization process from the analog image through sampling and pixellation to develop the final digital image. Aliasing problems and solutions. The assessment of digital image resolution via the point spread function and the modulation transfer function.
    8. Chapter 7- Random Processes. Continuous and discrete probability density functions. The binomial, Poisson, and Gaussian distributions, central limit theorem, and propagation of errors.
    9. Chapter 8-Noise and Detective Quantum Efficiency. Deals with noise and sources of noise in medical images. Quantitation of noise using the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods for Optimization of SNR and DQE.
    10. Chapter 8a Autocorrelation and Weiner Spectrum. This approach to relating noise and resolution will be presented and classic papers reviewed.
    11. Chapter 9- The Rose Model. Theoretical development of this model which deals with the relationship between contrast and SNR. Contrast-detail analysis and ROC analysis will also be covered.
    12. Chapter 10- Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA). System design considerations. Logarithmic vs. linear subtraction techniques. Analysis of noise in DSA as a function of signal level.
    13. Chapter 11- Temporal Filtering Techniques. Development of the mathematical methods describing mask mode subtraction, matched filtering and recursive filtering in DSA.

[edit] Course Appendix:

1 set of exams, 1 student evaluation (1 set of experiment descriptions, etc.).

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